Fosfor

15
P
Gruppe
15
Periode
3
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
15
15
16
General Properties
Atomnummer
15
Atommasse
30,973762
Mass Number
31
Kategori
Andre ikke-metaller
Farve
Colorless
Radioactive
Nej
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Triklin
History
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 5
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
1,82 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Kogepunkt
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Smeltevarme
0,64 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
12,4 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,769 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,099%
Abundance in Universe
0,0007%
Red
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS Number
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
98 pm
Kovalent radius
107 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,19 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
10,4867 eV
Atomic Volume
17,0 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,00235 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
31P
Unstable Isotopes
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P