Nikkel

28
Ni
Gruppe
10
Periode
4
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
28
28
31
General Properties
Atomnummer
28
Atommasse
58,6934
Mass Number
59
Kategori
Overgangsmetaller
Farve
Grå
Radioactive
Nej
From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper
Krystalstruktur
Fladecentreret Kubisk
History
Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC.

In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal.

In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 16, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Ni
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
8,912 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
1728,15 K | 1455 °C | 2651 °F
Kogepunkt
3186,15 K | 2913 °C | 5275,4 °F
Smeltevarme
17,2 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
378 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,444 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0089%
Abundance in Universe
0,006%
A
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
A sheet of nickel
CAS Number
7440-02-0
PubChem CID Number
935
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
124 pm
Kovalent radius
124 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,91 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
7,6398 eV
Atomic Volume
6,59 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,907 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults.

Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets.
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni
Unstable Isotopes
48Ni, 49Ni, 50Ni, 51Ni, 52Ni, 53Ni, 54Ni, 55Ni, 56Ni, 57Ni, 59Ni, 63Ni, 65Ni, 66Ni, 67Ni, 68Ni, 69Ni, 70Ni, 71Ni, 72Ni, 73Ni, 74Ni, 75Ni, 76Ni, 77Ni, 78Ni