Zirconium

40
Zr
Gruppe
4
Periode
5
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
40
40
51
General Properties
Atomnummer
40
Atommasse
91,224
Mass Number
91
Kategori
Overgangsmetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From the Persian zargun, gold like
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
6,506 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Kogepunkt
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Smeltevarme
21 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
580 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,278 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,013%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-6%
Two
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
160 pm
Kovalent radius
175 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,33 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
6,6339 eV
Atomic Volume
14,0 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,227 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Unstable Isotopes
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr