Ruthenium

44
Ru
Gruppe
8
Periode
5
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
44
44
57
General Properties
Atomnummer
44
Atommasse
101,07
Mass Number
101
Kategori
Overgangsmetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
12,37 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
2607,15 K | 2334 °C | 4233,2 °F
Kogepunkt
4423,15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Smeltevarme
25,7 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
580 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,238 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Gas
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS Number
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
134 pm
Kovalent radius
146 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,2 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
7,3605 eV
Atomic Volume
8,3 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
1,17 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Unstable Isotopes
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru