Jod

53
I
Gruppe
17
Periode
5
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
53
53
74
General Properties
Atomnummer
53
Atommasse
126,90447
Mass Number
127
Kategori
Halogener
Farve
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Nej
From the Greek word iodes, violet
Krystalstruktur
Endecentreret Orthohombisk
History
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Elektronkonfiguration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
4,93 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Kogepunkt
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Smeltevarme
7,76 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
20,9 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,214 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000049%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
CAS Number
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
140 pm
Kovalent radius
139 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,66 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
10,4513 eV
Atomic Volume
25,74 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,00449 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Applications
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
127I
Unstable Isotopes
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I