Osmium

76
Os
Gruppe
8
Periode
6
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
76
76
114
General Properties
Atomnummer
76
Atommasse
190,23
Mass Number
190
Kategori
Overgangsmetaller
Farve
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Nej
From the Greek word osme, meaning smell
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts and observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.

Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Os
Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the Earth's crust
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
22,61 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
3306,15 K | 3033 °C | 5491,4 °F
Kogepunkt
5285,15 K | 5012 °C | 9053,6 °F
Smeltevarme
31 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
630 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,13 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,8×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-7%
Osmium
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Osmium crystals produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS Number
7440-04-2
PubChem CID Number
23937
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
135 pm
Kovalent radius
144 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,2 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
8,4382 eV
Atomic Volume
8,49 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,876 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Osmium is used alloyed with other metals in the platinum group to produce very hard alloys.

Osmium alloys are used in the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts

Osmium tetroxide has been used in fingerprint detection and in staining fatty tissue for optical and electron microscopy.
Even low concentrations in air can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os
Unstable Isotopes
161Os, 162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 185Os, 186Os, 191Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196Os