Thallium

81
Tl
Gruppe
13
Periode
6
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
81
81
123
General Properties
Atomnummer
81
Atommasse
204,3833
Mass Number
204
Kategori
Post-overgangsmetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From Greek thallos, meanin a green shoot or twig
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Thallium was discovered spectroscopically by Sir William Crookes in 1861, in London.

In 1862, Claude-Auguste Lamy used a spectrometer to determine the composition of a selenium-containing substance which was deposited during the production of sulfuric acid from pyrite.

He noticed the new green line in the spectra and concluded that a new element was present.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
Elektronkonfiguration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Tl
Agatha Christie made use of thallium's toxicity in her novel The Pale Horse
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
11,85 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
577,15 K | 304 °C | 579,2 °F
Kogepunkt
1746,15 K | 1473 °C | 2683,4 °F
Smeltevarme
4,2 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
165 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,129 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000053%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Pure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Pure thallium under argon
CAS Number
7440-28-0
PubChem CID Number
5359464
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
170 pm
Kovalent radius
145 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,62 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
6,1082 eV
Atomic Volume
17,2 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,461 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 3
Applications
Thallium selenide has been used in a bolometer for infrared detection.

Thallium is also used in gamma radiation detection equipment.

Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a high index of refraction, and is used in the manufacture of photo cells.

Some of the electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers contain thallium.
Thallium and its compounds are highly toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
203Tl, 205Tl
Unstable Isotopes
176Tl, 177Tl, 178Tl, 179Tl, 180Tl, 181Tl, 182Tl, 183Tl, 184Tl, 185Tl, 186Tl, 187Tl, 188Tl, 189Tl, 190Tl, 191Tl, 192Tl, 193Tl, 194Tl, 195Tl, 196Tl, 197Tl, 198Tl, 199Tl, 200Tl, 201Tl, 202Tl, 204Tl, 206Tl, 207Tl, 208Tl, 209Tl, 210Tl, 211Tl, 212Tl