Thorium

90
Th
Gruppe
n/a
Periode
7
Blok
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
90
90
142
General Properties
Atomnummer
90
Atommasse
232,03806
Mass Number
232
Kategori
Actinider
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Ja
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Krystalstruktur
Fladecentreret Kubisk
History
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
11,7 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Kogepunkt
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Smeltevarme
16 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
530 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,113 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0006%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
The
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
179 pm
Kovalent radius
206 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,3 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
6,3067 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,54 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
2, 3, 4
Applications
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
232Th
Unstable Isotopes
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th