Gallium

31
Ga
Gruppe
13
Periode
4
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
31
31
39
General Properties
Atomnummer
31
Atommasse
69,723
Mass Number
70
Kategori
Post-overgangsmetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Krystalstruktur
Endecentreret Orthohombisk
History
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 3
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
5,907 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Kogepunkt
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Smeltevarme
5,59 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
256 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,371 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Crystals
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS Number
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
135 pm
Kovalent radius
122 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,81 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
5,9993 eV
Atomic Volume
11,8 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,406 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
69Ga, 71Ga
Unstable Isotopes
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga