Germanium

32
Ge
Gruppe
14
Periode
4
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
32
32
41
General Properties
Atomnummer
32
Atommasse
72,63
Mass Number
73
Kategori
Halvmetaller
Farve
Grå
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
Krystalstruktur
Fladecentreret Kubisk
History
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 18, 4
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
5,323 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
1211,4 K | 938,25 °C | 1720,85 °F
Kogepunkt
3106,15 K | 2833 °C | 5131,4 °F
Smeltevarme
31,8 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
334 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,32 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00014%
Abundance in Universe
0,00002%
Ultrapure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
CAS Number
7440-56-4
PubChem CID Number
6326954
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
122 pm
Kovalent radius
122 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,01 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
7,8994 eV
Atomic Volume
13,6 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,599 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Unstable Isotopes
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge