Beryllium

4
Be
Gruppe
2
Periode
2
Blok
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
4
4
5
General Properties
Atomnummer
4
Atommasse
9,012182
Mass Number
9
Kategori
Jordalkalimetaller
Farve
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Nej
From the Greek word beryllos, beryl
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798.

Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride.

The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[He] 2s2
Be
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
1,85 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
1560,15 K | 1287 °C | 2348,6 °F
Kogepunkt
2742,15 K | 2469 °C | 4476,2 °F
Smeltevarme
7,95 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
297 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
1,825 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Pure beryllium bead, 2.5 grams
CAS Number
7440-41-7
PubChem CID Number
5460467
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
112 pm
Kovalent radius
96 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,57 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
9,3227 eV
Atomic Volume
4,9 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 2
Applications
Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator.

Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites.

Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes.
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
9Be
Unstable Isotopes
5Be, 6Be, 7Be, 8Be, 10Be, 11Be, 12Be, 13Be, 14Be, 15Be, 16Be