Carbon

6
C
Gruppe
14
Periode
2
Blok
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
6
6
6
General Properties
Atomnummer
6
Atommasse
12,0107
Mass Number
12
Kategori
Andre ikke-metaller
Farve
Sort
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word carbo, charcoal
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 4
Elektronkonfiguration
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
2,267 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
3948,15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Kogepunkt
4300,15 K | 4027 °C | 7280,6 °F
Smeltevarme
105 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
715 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,709 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,18%
Abundance in Universe
0,5%
Ultrapure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
CAS Number
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
67 pm
Kovalent radius
77 pm
Elektronegativitet
2,55 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
11,2603 eV
Atomic Volume
5,31 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
1,29 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
12C, 13C
Unstable Isotopes
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C