Calcium

20
Ca
Gruppe
2
Periode
4
Blok
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
20
20
20
General Properties
Atomnummer
20
Atommasse
40,078
Mass Number
40
Kategori
Jordalkalimetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word calx, lime
Krystalstruktur
Fladecentreret Kubisk
History
Calcium was known as early as the first century when the Ancient Romans prepared lime as calcium oxide.

Calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 when he electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.

Davy was trying to isolate calcium; when he heard that Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 8, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 4s2
Ca
The shell of an egg is made up of primarily calcium carbonate
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
1,54 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
1115,15 K | 842 °C | 1547,6 °F
Kogepunkt
1757,15 K | 1484 °C | 2703,2 °F
Smeltevarme
8,54 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
155 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,647 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
5%
Abundance in Universe
0,007%
Pure
Billede akkrediteringer: Wikimedia Commons (Matthias Zepper)
Pure calcium in a protective argon gas atmosphere
CAS Number
7440-70-2
PubChem CID Number
5460341
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
197 pm
Kovalent radius
176 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,00 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
6,1132 eV
Atomic Volume
29,9 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 2
Applications
Calcium is used to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon from alloys.

It is also used as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys.

Calcium is used as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium.

Calcium carbonate is used in manufacturing cement and mortar, lime and limestone.
Calcium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, 46Ca
Unstable Isotopes
34Ca, 35Ca, 36Ca, 37Ca, 38Ca, 39Ca, 41Ca, 45Ca, 47Ca, 48Ca, 49Ca, 50Ca, 51Ca, 52Ca, 53Ca, 54Ca, 55Ca, 56Ca, 57Ca