Scandium

21
Sc
Gruppe
3
Periode
4
Blok
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
21
21
24
General Properties
Atomnummer
21
Atommasse
44,955912
Mass Number
45
Kategori
Overgangsmetaller
Farve
Silver
Radioactive
Nej
From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia
Krystalstruktur
Simpel Hexagonal
History
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues.
Elektroner i hver skal
2, 8, 9, 2
Elektronkonfiguration
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Physical Properties
Tilstandsform
Fast stof
Massefylde
2,989 g/cm3
Smeltepunkt
1814,15 K | 1541 °C | 2805,8 °F
Kogepunkt
3109,15 K | 2836 °C | 5136,8 °F
Smeltevarme
16 kJ/mol
Fordampningsvarme
318 kJ/mol
Varmefylde
0,568 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0026%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-6%
Ultrapure
Billede akkrediteringer: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline scandium
CAS Number
7440-20-2
PubChem CID Number
23952
Atomic Properties
Atomradius
162 pm
Kovalent radius
170 pm
Elektronegativitet
1,36 (Paulings skala)
Ionization Potential
6,5615 eV
Atomic Volume
15,0 cm3/mol
Varmeledningsevne
0,158 W/cm·K
Oxidationstrin
1, 2, 3
Applications
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotoper
Stable Isotopes
45Sc
Unstable Isotopes
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc